Miscellaneous blood test results

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Fasting Glucose optimal 75-85 mg/dL or 4.15-4.7 mmol/L
• An acute infection like a cold can suddenly spike blood glucose
before any symptoms of the cold are evident
• Chronic infections can raise glucose levels more gradually
• A high intake of carbohydrates during one day can result in a higher
fasting glucose the following morning

HbA1c (or A1c) ideally < or = 5 percent
Certain conditions can affect the accuracy of HbA1c results. Acute or
chronic blood loss and hemolytic anemias both decrease the red blood
cell survival rate. This can result in a false decrease in the A1c. In
long-term iron-deficiency anemia, A1c levels may be higher but may
decrease after treatment. Other possible reasons for an inaccurate A1c
might be kidney disease, elevated blood urea and pregnancy.

C-peptide is a more accurate measure of insulin production than a
direct blood test of insulin, as much of insulin is broken down very
quickly after it is released by the pancreas
• low amounts suggest insulin production is too low (or absent)
• high amounts may indicate an insulinoma (tumor that secretes insulin)
• results likely to be quite low in those eating a low-carbohydrate diet
• may help distinguish between Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes

Sodium optimal 142-143 mEq/L
Potassium optimal 4.2-4.4 mEq/L
Relatively high potassium with relatively low sodium points to low
aldosterone. Do these home tests to evaluate aldosterone.

RBC potassium 85-90% of the range

Chloride and Bicarbonate (or Carbon Dioxide)
Both at the top or above range may indicate dehydration or sometimes
poor lung function.

Vitamin B12
• Optimal is over range, usually above 1000 pg/mL (738 pmol/L)
• The lower limit of the normal range of blood serum levels of vitamin
B-12 in the United States (around 200 pg/mL) is based on the level
which causes pernicious anemia. In Japan and some European
countries the lower limit is 500-550 pg/mL based on the level at which
neurologic symptoms occur.

• It is possible to have low cellular B12 or “functional deficiency” when a
blood test shows a normal or even high serum level. Among the almost
40 analogues measured as a group by the serum B12 test, only two
are biologically active and only two others can be converted in the body
to one of the active forms. The serum B12 test does not distinguish
whether enough biologically-active B12 is available and functioning
• Vegans often test with normal levels of B12 while actually being
deficient due to consuming large amounts of certain B12 analogues
that block the bioavailability of active B12. Inactive B12 analogues can
block or inhibit the active forms of B12 from being used in the body
• If functional deficiency of B12 is suspected for other reasons such as
high homocysteine or pernicious anemia, the definitive test for B12 is
MMA (methylmalonic acid) which will be elevated if active B12 is

Vitamin D - 25(OH)D3 optimal 50-80 ng/mL (125-200 nmol/L)
There is broad agreement that deficiencies in Vitamin D are
widespread, that they play a role in many systemic illnesses and that
optimal health is impossible without sufficient Vitamin D. There is,
however, no concensus on what optimal levels should be.

• There is reputable research that suggests Vitamin D 25-OH levels of
50 to 80 ng/mL (125-200 nmol/L) are optimal and that is what we

• The suggested safe upper limit has been accepted as 100 ng/mL
(250 nmol/L), although in animal research toxicity was not reached until
300 pg/mL (750 nmol/L)

Homocysteine optimally <8 umol/L
Serum magnesium
Does not reflect body stores; will be relatively consistent whenever

RBC magnesium 70-75% of the range
There is no really good test for magnesium, but this will give a more
useful result.

Out-of-range blood calcium may indicate a parathyroid issue, as it is
parathyroid hormone that regulates calcium in blood. Calcium in blood
is mostly bound to albumin, so sometimes Adjusted Calcium is
calculated based on the albumin level. Low blood calcium does not
generally indicate a need for calcium in the diet or by supplementation.

Aldosterone and Renin
Optimal aldosterone, when the range is 0-30, is around 14-16. Levels
below 10 should be addressed with fludrocortisone. When aldosterone
is low, renin should be relatively high.
Over-range renin, even with mid-range aldosterone, indicates a need
for fludrocortisone.
Low aldosterone with low renin may be due to dysfunction of the
autonomic nervous system causing secondary hypoaldosteronism.
However the treatment is generally the same.
High renin and high aldosterone may be the body attempting to
compensate for low blood volume, most likely due to an inability of the
kidney to retain salt.